The Scope of chemistry
Chemistry, the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of substances (defined as elements and compounds), the transformations they undergo, and the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes. Every substance, whether naturally occurring or artificially produced, consists of one or more of the hundred-odd species of atoms that have been identified as elements. Although these atoms, in turn, are composed of more elementary particles, they are the basic building blocks of chemical substances; there is no quantity of oxygen, mercury, or gold, for example, smaller than an atom of that substance. Chemistry, therefore, is concerned not with the subatomic domain but with the properties of atoms and the laws governing their combinations, and how the knowledge of these properties can be used to achieve specific purposes.
Chemistry also is concerned with the utilization of natural substances and the creation of artificial ones. Cooking, fermentation, glass making, and metallurgy are all chemical processes that date from the beginnings of civilization. Today, vinyl, Teflon, liquid crystals, semiconductors, and superconductors represent the fruits of chemical technology. The 20th century saw dramatic advances in the comprehension of the marvelous and complex chemistry of living organisms, and a molecular interpretation of health and disease holds great promise. Modern chemistry, aided by increasingly sophisticated instruments, studies materials as small as single atoms and as large and complex as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which contains millions of atoms. New substances can even be designed to bear desired characteristics and then synthesized. The rate at which chemical knowledge continues to accumulate is remarkable. Over time more than 8,000,000 different chemical substances, both natural and artificial, have been characterized and produced. The number was less than 500,000 as recently as 1965.
Most of the materials that occur on Earth, such as wood, coal, minerals, or air, are mixtures of many different and distinct chemical substances. Each pure chemical substance (e.g., oxygen, iron, or water) has a characteristic set of properties that gives it its chemical identity. Iron, for example, is a common silver-white metal that melts at 1,535° C, is very malleable, and readily combines with oxygen to form the common substances hematite and magnetite. The detection of iron in a mixture of metals, or in a compound such as magnetite, is a branch of analytical chemistry called qualitative analysis. Measurement of the actual amount of a certain substance in a compound or mixture is termed quantitative analysis. Quantitative analytic measurement has determined, for instance, that iron makes up 72.3 percent, by mass, of magnetite, the mineral commonly seen as black sand along beaches and stream banks. Over the years, chemists have discovered chemical reactions that indicate the presence of such elemental substances by the production of easily visible and identifiable products. Iron can be detected by chemical means if it is present in a sample to an amount of 1 part per million or greater. Some very simple qualitative tests reveal the presence of specific chemical elements in even smaller amounts. The yellow colour imparted to a flame by sodium is visible if the sample being ignited has as little as one-billionth of a gram of sodium. Such analytic tests have allowed chemists to identify the types and amounts of impurities in various substances and to determine the properties of very pure materials. Substances used in common laboratory experiments generally have impurity levels of less than 0.1 percent. For special applications, one can purchase chemicals that have impurities totaling less than 0.001 percent. The identification of pure substances and the analysis of chemical mixtures enable all other chemical disciplines to flourish.
The importance of analytical chemistry has never been greater than it is today. The demand in modern societies for a variety of safe foods, affordable consumer goods, abundant energy, and labor-saving technologies places a great burden on the environment. All chemical manufacturing produces waste products in addition to the desired substances, and waste disposal has not always been carried out carefully. Disruption of the environment has occurred since the dawn of civilization, and pollution problems have increased with the growth of the global population. The techniques of analytical chemistry are relied on heavily to maintain a benign environment. The undesirable substances in water, air, soil, and food must be identified, their point of origin fixed, and safe, economical methods for their removal or neutralization developed. Once the amount of a pollutant deemed to be hazardous has been assessed, it becomes important to detect harmful substances at concentrations well below the danger level. Analytical chemists seek to develop increasingly accurate and sensitive techniques and instruments.
Sophisticated analytic instruments, often coupled with computers, have improved the accuracy with which chemists can identify substances and have lowered detection limits. An analytic technique in general use is gas chromatography, which separates the different components of a gaseous mixture by passing the mixture through a long, narrow column of absorbent but porous material. The different gases interact differently with this absorbent material and pass through the column at different rates. As the separate gases flow out of the column, they can be passed into another analytic instrument called a mass spectrometer, which separates substances according to the mass of their constituent ions. A combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer can rapidly identify the individual components of a chemical mixture whose concentrations may be no greater than a few parts per billion. Similar or even greater sensitivities can be obtained under favorable conditions using techniques such as atomic absorption, polarography, and neutron activation. The rate of instrumental innovation is such that analytic instruments often become obsolete within 10 years of their introduction. Newer instruments are more accurate and faster and are employed widely in the areas of environmental and medicinal chemistry.
Modern chemistry, which dates more or less from the acceptance of the law of conservation of mass in the late 18th century, focused initially on those substances that were not associated with living organisms. The study of such substances, which normally have little or no carbon, constitutes the discipline of inorganic chemistry. Early work sought to identify the simple substances—namely, the elements—that are the constituents of all more complex substances. Some elements, such as gold and carbon, have been known since antiquity, and many others were discovered and studied throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, more than 100 are known. The study of such simple inorganic compounds as sodium chloride (common salt) has led to some of the fundamental concepts of modern chemistry, the law of definite proportions providing one notable example. This law states that for most pure chemical substances the constituent elements are always present in fixed proportions by mass (e.g., every 100 grams of salt contains 39.3 grams of sodium and 60.7 grams of chlorine). The crystalline form of salt, known as halite, consists of intermingled sodium and chlorine atoms, one sodium atom for each one of chlorine. Such a compound, formed solely by the combination of two elements, is known as a binary compound. Binary compounds are very common in inorganic chemistry, and they exhibit little structural variety. For this reason, the number of inorganic compounds is limited in spite of the large number of elements that may react with each other. If three or more elements are combined in a substance, the structural possibilities become greater.
After a period of quiescence in the early part of the 20th century, inorganic chemistry has again become an exciting area of research. Compounds of boron and hydrogen, known as boranes, have unique structural features that forced a change in thinking about the architecture of inorganic molecules. Some inorganic substances have structural features long believed to occur only in carbon compounds, and a few inorganic polymers have even been produced. Ceramics are materials composed of inorganic elements combined with oxygen. For centuries ceramic objects have been made by strongly heating a vessel formed from a paste of powdered minerals. Although ceramics are quite hard and stable at very high temperatures, they are usually brittle. Currently, new ceramics strong enough to be used as turbine blades in jet engines are being manufactured. There is hope that ceramics will one day replace steel in components of internal-combustion engines. In 1987 a ceramic containing yttrium, barium, copper, and oxygen, with the approximate formula YBa2Cu3O7, was found to be a superconductor at a temperature of about 100 K. A superconductor offers no resistance to the passage of an electrical current, and this new type of ceramic could very well find wide use in electrical and magnetic applications. A superconducting ceramic is so simple to make that it can be prepared in a high school laboratory. Its discovery illustrates the unpredictability of chemistry, for fundamental discoveries can still be made with simple equipment and inexpensive materials.Many of the most interesting developments in inorganic chemistry bridge the gap with other disciplines. Organometallic chemistry investigates compounds that contain inorganic elements combined with carbon-rich units. Many organometallic compounds play an important role in industrial chemistry as catalysts, which are substances that are able to accelerate the rate of a reaction even when present in only very small amounts. Some success has been achieved in the use of such catalysts for converting natural gas to related but more useful chemical substances. Chemists also have created large inorganic molecules that contain a core of metal atoms, such as platinum, surrounded by a shell of different chemical units. Some of these compounds, referred to as metal clusters, have characteristics of metals, while others react in ways similar to biologic systems. Trace amounts of metals in biologic systems are essential for processes such as respiration, nerve function, and cell metabolism. Processes of this kind form the object of study of bioinorganic chemistry. Although organic molecules were once thought to be the distinguishing chemical feature of living creatures, it is now known that inorganic chemistry plays a vital role as well.
Organic compounds are based on the chemistry of carbon. Carbon is unique in the variety and extent of structures that can result from the three-dimensional connections of its atoms. The process of photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and water to oxygen and compounds known as carbohydrates. Both cellulose, the substance that gives structural rigidity to plants, and starch, the energy storage product of plants, are polymeric carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis form the raw material for the myriad organic compounds found in the plant and animal kingdoms. When combined with variable amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements, the structural possibilities of carbon compounds become limitless, and their number far exceeds the total of all nonorganic compounds. A major focus of organic chemistry is the isolation, purification, and structural study of these naturally occurring substances. Many natural products are simple molecules. Examples include formic acid (HCO2H) in ants, ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) in fermenting fruit, and oxalic acid (C2H2O4) in rhubarb leaves. Other natural products, such as penicillin, vitamin B12, proteins, and nucleic acids, are exceedingly complex. The isolation of pure natural products from their host organism is made difficult by the low concentrations in which they may be present. Once they are isolated in pure form, however, modern instrumental techniques can reveal structural details for amounts weighing as little as one-millionth of a gram. The correlation of the physical and chemical properties of compounds with their structural features is the domain of physical organic chemistry. Once the properties endowed upon a substance by specific structural units termed functional groups are known, it becomes possible to design novel molecules that may exhibit desired properties. The preparation, under controlled laboratory conditions, of specific compounds is known as synthetic chemistry. Some products are easier to synthesize than to collect and purify from their natural sources. Tons of vitamin C, for example, are synthesized annually. Many synthetic substances have novel properties that make them especially useful. Plastics are a prime example, as are many drugs and agricultural chemicals. A continuing challenge for synthetic chemists is the structural complexity of most organic substances. To synthesize a desired substance, the atoms must be pieced together in the correct order and with the proper three-dimensional relationships. Just as a given pile of lumber and bricks can be assembled in many ways to build houses of several different designs, so too can a fixed number of atoms be connected together in various ways to give different molecules. Only one structural arrangement out of the many possibilities will be identical with a naturally occurring molecule. The antibiotic erythromycin, for example, contains 37 carbon, 67 hydrogen, and 13 oxygen atoms, along with one nitrogen atom. Even when joined together in the proper order, these 118 atoms can give rise to 262,144 different structures, only one of which has the characteristics of natural erythromycin. The great abundance of organic compounds, their fundamental role in the chemistry of life, and their structural diversity have made their study especially challenging and exciting. Organic chemistry is the largest area of specialization among the various fields of chemistry.
As understanding of inanimate chemistry grew during the 19th century, attempts to interpret the physiological processes of living organisms in terms of molecular structure and reactivity gave rise to the discipline of biochemistry. Biochemists employ the techniques and theories of chemistry to probe the molecular basis of life. An organism is investigated on the premise that its physiological processes are the consequence of many thousands of chemical reactions occurring in a highly integrated manner. Biochemists have established, among other things, the principles that underlie energy transfer in cells, the chemical structure of cell membranes, the coding and transmission of hereditary information, muscular and nerve function, and biosynthetic pathways. In fact, related biomolecules have been found to fulfill similar roles in organisms as different as bacteria and human beings. The study of biomolecules, however, presents many difficulties. Such molecules are often very large and exhibit great structural complexity; moreover, the chemical reactions they undergo are usually exceedingly fast. The separation of the two strands of DNA, for instance, occurs in one-millionth of a second. Such rapid rates of reaction are possible only through the intermediary action of biomolecules called enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that owe their remarkable rate-accelerating abilities to their three-dimensional chemical structure. Not surprisingly, biochemical discoveries have had a great impact on the understanding and treatment of disease. Many ailments due to inborn errors of metabolism have been traced to specific genetic defects. Other diseases result from disruptions in normal biochemical pathways.
Frequently, symptoms can be alleviated by drugs, and the discovery, mode of action, and degradation of therapeutic agents are another of the major areas of study in biochemistry. Bacterial infections can be treated with sulfonamides, penicillins, and tetracyclines, and research into viral infections has revealed the effectiveness of acyclovir against the herpes virus. There is much current interest in the details of carcinogenesis and cancer chemotherapy. It is known, for example, that cancer can result when cancer-causing molecules, or carcinogens as they are called, react with nucleic acids and proteins and interfere with their normal modes of action. Researchers have developed tests that can identify molecules likely to be carcinogenic. The hope, of course, is that progress in the prevention and treatment of cancer will accelerate once the biochemical basis of the disease is more fully understood.
The molecular basis of biologic processes is an essential feature of the fast-growing disciplines of molecular biology and biotechnology. Chemistry has developed methods for rapidly and accurately determining the structure of proteins and DNA. In addition, efficient laboratory methods for the synthesis of genes are being devised. Ultimately, the correction of genetic diseases by replacement of defective genes with normal ones may become possible.